1517: Luther nails up his 95 theses, was a novel written in 1517 about his protest against the buying and selling of indulgences in the church. He also states that the pope has too much power as well as buying indulgences gives you a false state of mind in his eyes.

1519: Charles wanted total control of Europe, but he struggled to keep peace with France as well as lost respect from other European nations during his reign as the king of the Holy Roman Empire.

152i: The diet of worms was a meeting held in worms a small town that involved the Holy Roman Empire which was started the Protestant reformation based on the facts given by Martin Luther 95 theses. The reformation was to fix the empires selling of indulgences as well as set up another form of religion.

1527: Holy Roman Empire military fought and took over Rome. The death of Machiavelli who views during the Renaissance started the first political science and started the first views of humanists group caused the end of the Renaissance.

1529-The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. After 150 years of tension and attacks the Battle of Vienna ended in 1683.The Ottoman failed to capture Vienna in 1529 and it turned the tide against years of conquests through eastern and central Europe.

1545- The Council of Trent in the 16 century had the Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church this was one of the most important councils in the 16 century. The Council of Trent played an important part in determining the outcome of the Counter-Reformation. Any long term change in the Catholic Church depended on the attitude of the pope in power at one particular time. If there was no desire for change, then there wouldn’t be any changes. Julius III didn’t show any interest at all in the reform. It was finally disbanded in 1563 but though it would appear to have a life span of 18 years, it was only engaged in talks for four and a half years.

1555-The Peace of Augsburg is also the Augsburg Settlement, it was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and it made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.

1556- Charles V, was born Feb. 24, 1500 and he is the king of Spain as well as the holly Roman Empire. Charles V divided his lands in two he gave his brother his Austrian land and the title of Holy Roman Emperor, and his son Philip II of Spain an addition to Spain and his colonial empire, the Low Countries Milan and Naples. Charles V struggled to hold his Spanish and Habsburg empire together against t growing forces of Protestantism, Turkish and the French. In 1556 Charles gave his claims to the Netherlands and Spain in favour of his son Philip II and the title of emperor to his brother Ferdinand I, and in 1557 he retired to a monastery in Spain.








1588- Phillip the II ordered the Spanish Armada to prepare for war against England. In the resulting battle, the Spanish Armada was completely defeated by England.
1589- Henry IV was the first Bourbon king of France from 1589-1610. During his reign he invoked the Edic of Nantes, which religious liberties to Protestants.
1598- The Edict of Nantes was invoked by Henry IV on April 13, 1598. It gave huguenots many rights, which was unusual in a Catholic Nation. The aim was to create civil unity.