Politics and Government

1300-1781


Connor McNulty (1308-1588)

Kyle Verrette (1598-1715)

Joseph Hill (1682-1776)



General

Politics and government from the year 1300 to the year 1648 were highly utilized to control the people in an organized manor while keeping them satisfied with who was in charge.


The Black Death

The Black Death was a horrible time throughout Europe from 1348 to 1350. The Black Death was a bubonic plague which eliminated two-fifths of the population and caused a huge chunk of pious Christians into believers in the omnipotence of death.

The Hundred Years' War(1337-1453)

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) contributed to the changes of the government and social class over all. This war was started over the issue concerning the grandson of Philip the Fair, King Edward III. Edward asserted a claim to the French throne after the passing of the the last male son of Philip the Fair. The French barons had no intention of placing the fifteen-year-old Edward on the throne and instantly placing the first cousin of Charles IV incharge.


The Golden Bull(1356)

The Golden Bull was an agreement in 1356 to establish a seven-member electoral college of German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor.

Wars of the Roses in England(1455-1485)

The war lasted for more than thirty years and was much more destructive to England than the previous century during the Hundred Years War.The War of the Roses was a civil war in England that was started over a struggle to claim the English throne. This struggle was between the families descended from Edward III and the families descended from Henry IV. Henry IV's descendants and their supporters were the Lancastrian faction. The other families on Edward IV's side, were associated with families in the North of England, particularly the House of York and Richard of York. They are called the Yorkist faction. The Roses came from general idea of each rose being a factional symbol originated in Shakespeare’s day. The rose was just a symbol used on many of the uniforms of the troops in the war.




1598-French Protestants are known as Huguenots, a term derived from Besancon Huges, the leader of Geneva’s political revolt against the house of savoy in the 1520’s. This had been a prelude to the city’s Calvinist reformation with the weakened monarchy. Three powerful families saw their chance to control France and began to compete for the young king’s era; The Bourbons, whose power was in the south and west. The Montmorency- Chantillons controlled the center of France and was the strongest among them. Guises were dominant in eastern France.

1624-1642- The French minister cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) whose foreign policy was to protest French interests by keeping Habsburg armies tied down in Germany. Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII (1610-1643), and then by Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661). Both Richelieu and Mazarin attempted to impose direct royal administration on France. Richelieu had also circumscribed many of the political privileges Henry IV and extended to French Protestants in the Edict of Nans (1598).

1642- The Puritans in Parliament resented religious policies and distrusted the influence of his Roman Catholic wife. What became known as the Long Parliament (1640-1660) thus acted with widespread support and general unanimity when it convened in November 1640. In January 1642, Charles invaded Parliament, intending to arrest certain of his opponents, but they escaped. The next four years (1642-1646), civil war engulfed England with the Kings supporters, known as Cavaliers, and the parliamentary opposition as Round heads.

1648- By the time peace talk began at Munster and Osnabruck in Westphalia in 1644, the war had killed an estimated one-third of the German Population. The treaty in Westphalia in 1648 ended all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire. It was the first general peace in Europe after a war unprecedented for its number of warring parties. By confirming the territional sovereignty of Germany’s many political entities, the treaty of Westphalia perpetuated German division and political weakness into the modern period.

1649-1652- The centralizing policies of Richelieu and then of Mazarin, however, finally provoked a series of widespread rebellions among French nobles between 1649 and 1652 known as the Fronde (after the slingshots used by street boys). The Fronde of the Princes began as a conflict between Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, and Cardinal Mazarin. Prince de Conde was a French general in the Thirty Years' War and assisted the royal family during the first fronde. In February 1651, and Conde attempted to overthrow the government with open warfare.

1649- During the 1630s Charles I (1625-1649) of England, when he ruled as an all-but absolute monarch without calling Parliament, employed the Roman Catholic Flemish artist peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall at his palace in London, Its paintings commemorating his father, James I. Charles I was led to his execution in 1649 through the Rubens-decorated Banqueting Hall to his death on the scaffold erected outside.


1649- During the 1630s Charles I (1625-1649) of England, when he ruled as an all-but absolute monarch without calling Parliament, employed the Roman Catholic Flemish artist peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall at his palace in London, Its paintings commemorating his father, James I. Charles I was led to his execution in 1649 through the Rubens-decorated Banqueting Hall to his death on the scaffold erected outside.


1660-Charles II (1660-1685) returned to England amid great rejoicing. A man of considerable charm set a refreshing new tone after eleven years of somber Puritanism. England returned to the status quo of 1642, with a hereditary monarch a parliament of Lords and commons that met only when the king summoned it.

1661-1715- On the death of Mazarin in 1661, Louis XIV assumed personal control of the government at the age of twenty-three. He appointed no single chief minister. Louis devoted enormous personal energy to his political tasks. He ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, the army, and domestic admistration. Louis made sure, however, that the nobility and other major social groups would benefit from the growth of his own authority.

1682-1725 Peter The Great became co-ruler of Russia by the age of 10 years old. Russia never was the same after he ruled. Peter created a stronger military power in Russia which allowed the country to grow in size because of fights over territory.Peter was a hot-headed ruler if you went against his word he had no problem with executing people who tried to revolt. Peter The Great began to drive himself into Sweden in order to control seaports for their military caused The Great Northern War which was a big win by Russia because now they controled most of the ports controlled by Sweden.Peter The Great created the new capital of Russia in 1703, the new capital was St. Petersburg.. Peter created new imperial courts so they would a new western orientation.He created the synod for Russian church. Peter The Great made Russia what in is today by having a strong military power and by having complete control of his counrty government and politics.


1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes causing because he believed in an absolute monarch caused France to experience a war of religion and revolts against the government of France.

1688 The Glorious Revolution was to overthrone James II of england, it was a blood less revolution led by William of Orange. James fled to France. William III and Mary II became the new monarch of England. They decided to have a limited monarch and guaranteed civil liberties to the people of england.

1701-1714 War of Spanish Sucession the war envoleped western europe. France went to war with limited finances and a poorly equiped army unlike England who was heavily armed. England won every major battle but France won in Spain. France made peace with England. Both countries owned small amounts of territories in Spain due to the war.

1740-1748 War of the Austrian Succession was a war about continental balance of power. The young king of Prussia Fredreick II seized territory of Austrian province in eastern Germany which caused a revolt by the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburg Empire only wanted to perserve political power.The Austrian Succession unitied the Britain-Spanish conflict because of France.Britain allied with Prussia in the war. The aid helped Prussia become a more powerful state in Germany. But the War turned again into a war between Britain and France. France lost again to Britain causing their government to crumble even more. The war ended with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle,

1756-1763 The Seven's Years' War was caused by Frederick II of Prussia because of invading Saxony. France and Austria made an alliance as well as Sweden, Russia and many other smaller German states. Russia made peace with Prussia. Which allowed Frederick only to hold off France and Austria. The Treaty of Habsburg in 1763 ended the conflict with no significant changes in the prewar borders. Prussia still became higher in ranks of power.

1772 The first Partition of Poland was a division of Polish territory caused by Austria, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire. Polish government gave up one third of their territory. The land was fought over by Austria, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire.

1776 The Decleration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson in order for America to become free of Britains rule.America colonies didnt want to have the same rules as England because of that England was raising taxes in the colonies as well as controling sea ports in order to take control of the situation but American colonies couldnt take it anymore so they revolted causing the American Revolution. In 1783 America became an independent counrty with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.