1618-1648- The Thirty Years’ War was fought in 4 phases: Bohemian(1618-1625), Danish(1625-1629), Swedish (1630-1635), Swedish French(1635-1648). During the Bohemian period Calvinists demanded more freedom. During the Danish period, King Christian IV attempted to bring Prostestantism to Germany. During the Swedish Period, The peace of Pragues agreement was signed between German Protestants and Ferdinand. The Swedish-French Period, French, Swedish, and Spanish soldiers were fighting in Germany. The warwas ended by the Treaty of Westphalia.


The English Civil War was when Parliamentarians and Royalists had armed conflicts and political debates over their differences in opinion. The Parliamentarians were in support of the Long Parliament and it’s Parliamentary system, while the Royalists were in favor of King Charles I and the Monarch government. The war ended when the Parliament won at the Battle of Worcester.



Louis XIV was the longest reigning king in all of history, coming in at 72 years and 110 days. He was also known as “Louis the Great” and “The Sun King”. Louis XIV followed the theory of Divine Rule, and he strived for a centralized state whose government was purely within the capital. He lived long past his sons, and all others whom would have been his predecessors except his five year old grandson, whom took over the crown and became Louis XV.



The restoration of Stuarts in England was basically the reinstating of the Monarchy to England. This was done under Charles II, and he also had this applied to Scotland and Ireland. This is a time period mostly referred to as the entire reign of Charles the II as it took quite a while for the entire system to settle back in.



The revolution during which King James II of England was overthrown by William III and Parliamentarians uniting to fight against his monarchist values. William, who was originally a Dutch military officer, then took over the English crown. He rule in joint with his wife Mary II of England. He was a strong supporter of Religious Tolerance.



The War of Spanish Succession is fought over whether Spain should unite with France to create a single Bourbon country. War ends when Treaties of Urecht are signed, and the unification of the two countries is staved off. This, in turn, created the Kingdom of Prussia. France was weakened heavily by the war and England emerged as the strongest power in Europe.