Politics and government 1713-1848

By Farrah Belliveau, Tanya Flick, and Maddie LeDuc

1713- Treaty of Utrecht

Treaty of Utrecht

The Treaty of Utrecht created the Peace of Utrecht. A combination of individual peace treaties that were signed by the Dutch in April 1713. This peace treaty help put an end to the Spanish war of Succession. It had the Partition treaties from earlier which stated Spanish and French crowns should not combine. This was to create peace in Europe part of the British foreign policy to help balance the power. The treaty of Utrecht was sometimes called the Second Hundred years war and there was a triple alliance (France, Holland, and England) from in 1717. Later in 1718 Austria joined the Triple alliance making a quadruple alliance against Spain to keep the peace in Europe. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Treaty_of_Utrecht

1713- 1740- Fredrick William I builds Prussian military

Fredrick William I

Frederick William I was the King of Prussia. He wanted people to know about his military liking and wanted to display it. He was determined to build a good army to protect his territory. He ended up creating one of the strongest armies in Germany. http://www.worldhistory.knowledge4africa.com/modern/realism-01.jsp

1720-1740- Walpole England, Fleury in France


The cardinal first minster of Louis XV cancelled the plan of attack on the British trade and instead to support the Prussian Aggression against Austria. Which Sir Walpole started.

1740-1748- War of Austrian succession

The Royal Highland Regiment at Fontenoy

A group of wars that happened after Charles VI died. The cause was because of Maria Theresa’s rights to get the Charles land. The war started when Frederick II took over Silsea. It was ended by a treaty.

1756- 1763- Seven Years War

The Death of General Wolfe

The seven years war was the first global problem. There were two main contributions to this war first was the problems between Prussia after the War of Austria Succession the second was rivalries between France, Britain, and Spain. The Treaty of St. Petersburg help make peace and the Treaty of Paris made Great Britain the head of the Empire which was the main goal at the start of the war. (http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_sevenyears.html) (http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861034.html)

1772- First partition of Poland

The First Partition of Poland

The first Partition was because they were jealous of the European powers. The goal was for there to be the polish Prussia. This was during the 18th century. Happening after Russia became a part of a war with the Ottoman Empire. This lead to the signing of the Partition which made Poland lose a lot of their territory to Russia. (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/466910/Partitions-

1775-1783-American Revolution

George Washington Crossing the Deleware

The American Revolution had events that were rather important: The French and Indian war (1754-1763), The Sugar and Stamp Act (1763-1766), The Boston Massacre and Tea Party(1767-1774) The impact of the revolution was Americans wanted a democratic government over a monarchy and have a more equal white male society. They created the most influential way of life and people were more free then anywhere else making the Europeans look in to there ways.( http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/revolution/section4.rhtml)

1789 Gathering of the Estates General at Versailles; fall of Bastille, Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

gathering of the Estates General at Versailles
fall of Bastile
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

In 1789 it was the first meeting since 1614 that the Estates General had. It was to figure and find a way to solve the finical problems France had. It caused the third Estate to turn into the National Assembly.( **http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estates-General_of_1789**) After the Tennis court Oath there were uprisings that actually saved the National assembly the most famous being the Fall of Bastille. (July 14, 1789) This made Louis XVI loose his power because he couldn’t control the political aspect of France anymore.( **http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/fallofbast.html**) August of 1789 the National Constituent Assembly chose to write a constitution to state the political principles. This made men equal and free and the government was to protect there rights. The two most important aspects were civic equality and popular sovereignty.

1793- Louis XVI executed, Second Partion of Poland

Louis XVI executed
Second partition of Poland

in spring 1793 Louis XVI was executed because he was not protecting the security of the state and taking the liberty of the people away. The second Partition of Poland was in 1793. It happened after the War in Defense of the Constitution. The partition was a treaty signed by both Prussia and Russia saying they would each get some of the Commonwealth territory.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Partition_of_Poland)

1793-1794- Reign of Terror

Robespiere guillotined

The reign of terror started after Louis XVI, the king of France was executed. During this time, the French government put actions to protect the revolution and silence dissent. The Committee of Public Safety was created in 1793 and had almost complete power. Robespierre was a leader in The Committee of Public Safety and justified the terror by saying that it was “the rule of the day”. Anyone who did not agree with the set ideals of the Revolution was sentenced to death by the guillotine. The Reign of Terror ended when Robespierre was guillotined on July 27, 1794.

1795- Third Partion of Poland

Partition of Poland

The three partitions of Poland were the three territorial divisions made by Austria, Prussia, and Russia. By the third partition, Poland no longer exisisted.

1799- Napoleon named First Consul in France

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte lead a coup d’état that made him the first consul in France. Without becoming First Consul, Napoleon would not have become emperor.

1804-Napoleonic Code; Napoleon crowned emperor

Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic code went effect in 1802 when Napoleon gained complete control of the French government. The code safeguarded all property and secured society against internal challenges. It also gave males control over their wives and children. Before the Napoleonic Code, France did not have one set of laws for the entire country. In 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor of France.

1805- Third Coalitions formed against France, battles of Trafalgar and Austerlitz

Political Cartoon the Third Coalition

The Third Coalition was an alliance formed with Russia, Prussia, and Austria with financial help from Great Britain against France. In the battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon beat the Coalition in one of his most triumphant wins. In the battle of Trafalgar, England’s navy beat the French Navy proving that France could not take over the British Islands.

1806-Napoleon establishes the continental System

Continental System

The Third Coalition was an alliance formed with Russia, Prussia, and Austria with financial help from Great Britain against France. In the battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon beat the Coalition in one of his most triumphant wins. In the battle of Trafalgar, England’s navy beat the French Navy proving that France could not take over the British Islands.

1808- Spanish Resistance to Napoleon stiffens

The Third of May 1808

Spain had the most natural resistance against France, but France and Spain were allies since 1796. But, when Napoleon replaced the Spanish monarch with his own brother, Spain began to revolt against Napoleon. Spain fought French troops with Guerilla Warfare. By doing this, France began to tire and lose strength.

1812- Napoleon invades Russia; meets defeat

Napoleon's Envasion of Russia

In 1810, Russia withdrew from the Continental System creating tensions between France. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia not realizing how harsh the Russian climate was. Russian troops retreated into Russian using the “scorched earth” method in which Russia destroyed everything that would have been useful to France. When Russia and France finally met in battle, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic era occurred and France was forced to retreat. When the Russian campaign ended, only 1 in 6 of Napoleon’s troops made it back to France.

1814- Congress of Vienna opens

what Congress of Vienna established
Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna was called to order to remake Europe after Napoleon. There were many territorial decisions to be made. The main goal was to create a balance of power to reserve the peace. The four major powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain) made most of the big decisions. France lost all of the land that Napoleon had conquered for them. The Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands were combined to form the Netherlands. Norway and Sweden were now ruled under a single ruler. Switzerland became natural the new kingdom of Poland was controlled by Russia and Finland. France was now under the power of Louis XVIII. Spain was now under the power of Ferdinand VII.

1815-Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

Battle of Waterloo

After Napoleon was returned to power, many states opposed his comeback. They formed the Seventh Coalition and assembled armies. On June 18, 1815, the Battle of Waterloo happened near Waterloo, Belgium. The French Empire, lead by Napoleon, was defeated by the Seventh Coalition and the Prussian Army. Napoleon surrendered to the British government and was exiled to die at Saint Helena. The battle put an end to the rule of Napoleon in France.

1821- Greek revolution begins

Greek Revolution

Also known as the Greek War of Independence, the Greek Revolution was when Greece finally became free from the Ottoman Empire. The first revolt against the Ottoman rule was on March 6, 1821. On March 17, 1821, war was declared on the Ottomans. Within the next few years, three Great Powers (Russia, England, and France) sent help to Greece. In May 1832, Greece was finally recognized as an independent nation.

1825 Decembrist Revolt in Russia

Decemberist Revolt

On December 26, 1825 in Imperial Russia, the Decembrist revolt took place. They are called Decembrists because the events took place in December. About 3,000 soldiers led a protest against Nicolas I’s assumption to the throne. They wanted Nicolas’s brother Constantine to take the throne. Constantine could not have the throne though; he had removed himself from the line of succession.

1829- Catholic Emancipation Act in Great Britain

Daniel O'Connel

The Catholic emancipation (or Catholic relief) removed many restrictions on Roman Catholics that had been created by the Act of Uniformity.Daniel O'Connel organized the Catholic Emancipation with the Irish Catholic Association. Campaigns for the Catholic emancipation started in 1823. Many people opposed the Catholic Emancipation Act but it finally passed in 1829 when the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel changed their positions.

1830-Revolution in France, Belgium, and Poland Serbia gains independence &

1848- Revolutions sweep across Europe

Belgian Revolution

There were many countries that had Revolutions in 1830 and 1848. The first of these revolutions started in France and soon spread through other parts of Europe. More than 50 countries were affected by this revolutionary wave but there was not much cooperation between the revolutionaries in the countries. There were five factors involved: demand for more participation and democracy; upsurge of nationalism; demands of the working classes; widespread dissatisfaction with the political leadership; and regrouping the reactionary forces based in the royalty, the aristocracy, the army, and the peasants. The only significant reform was the abolition of serfdom. The revolutions were most important to France, Austria, Italy, and Germany.

1832-Great reform bill in Britain

Great Reform Bill 1832

Also known as the Representation of the People Act, the Reform Act 1832 introduced changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. There was opposition from the Parliament but it finally passed after public pressure. The Act granted seats in the House of Commons to large cities. It also increased the number of people allowed to vote.